POLY-nanofluids (Polymer-nanofluids) & DR-nanofluids (Drag-Reduction-nanofluids)
This Web page at:
Back to www.kostic.niu.edu


A Nanofluids Research Initiative:
Development of hybrid, Drag-Reduction  nanofluids and other complex nanofluids with polymer additives (d
ubbed POLYnanofluids and DRnanofluids) and investigation of their structural, diffusion, thermo-physical, flow and heat transfer characteristics, for diverse applications, including: (1) enhanced energy/heat transfer, (2) flow friction reduction and tribology; (3) water treatment and purification; (4) pharmaceutics and bioengineering; (5) environmental control and cleanup; and (6) development of novel fluid/thermal and environmental/bioengineering sensors, devices and systems.

"Development of new hybrid nanofluids is a new challenge and opportunity. It may open the road for development of diverse, complex nanofluids with polymer additives (including biological nanofluids), dubbed POLY-nanofluids, with many and unprecedented applications in existing critical areas as well as emerging and novel applications. The trend in further development of nanomaterials is to make them multifunctional and controllable by external means or by local environment thus essentially turning them into useful nano-devices. I am aware that nanofluids were hyped-up in the past, but in my opinion it will be a mistake to hype-down nanofluids now and make premature judgments based on similar but not the same facts." by M. Kostic

Click to enlarge ...Click to enlarge ...NIU Wet-nanotechnology Initiative PPT PPT2* NIU Strategic Concept Papers (Wet-Nanotechnology)
NIU-MK Nanofluids Activities and Future Plans (PstrTC*PstrFHT)Report* A Workshop Proposal * P
Nanofluids / PDF (NIU Sigma Xi Seminar, 10/25/2005)*Hawai06Seminar
There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom by Richard P. Feynman
►Kostic's Graduate Students -Nanofluids Team:
Craig Netemeyer, "Exploring Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of New Hybrid Polymer-Nanofluids." Casey Walleck (Pstr); Kalyan Chaitanya Simham; Kevin Caho; Vijay Kumar Sankaramadhi; Shashank Bharadwaj Tirumala Vangipuram; Tribology (PDF-Dwg-Lv)-(BN-Pstr-SS-Pstr).

Professor Kostic has been appointed to work in Argonne National Laboratory with Dr.Hull and Dr. Choi of Energy Technology Division (TEM Section, Bldg 335 and Lab 212-C116, ext.2-5142) in the Summer 2004 & 2005 Faculty Research Participation Program, and as a Guest Faculty Research Participant at ANL. * nsf123

Selected Activities of Prof. Kostic's Nanofluid Research Group (more at www.kostic.niu.edu/DRnanofluids):

Kostic, M., “Critical Issues in Nanofluids Research and Application Potentials,” In book, "Nanofluids: Research, Developments and Applications," (Editor Y. Zhang), p.1-54. Nova Science Publisher, Inc., 2013 (Amazon; eBook))  ISBN: 978-1-62618-165-6.

Kostic, M., Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow, The 8th WSEAS International Conference on ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT (EE'13), Rhodes Island, Greece, July 16-19, 2013. In "Recent Advances in Energy and Environmental Management"-PDF. ISSN: 2227-4359, ISBN: 978-960-474-312-4, WSEAS Press, 2013.

Invited Lecture: "Critical Issues in Nanofluids: Research and Application Potentials," Royal Institute of Technology - KTH (hosted by Nanocharacterization Center-Functional Materials), Stockholm, Sweden, 21 May 2012.

Invited Lecture: Nanofluids Research: Critical Issues and Application Potentials," Norwegian University of Science and Technology -NTNU (hosted by NTNU Nanomechanical Lab - Report), Trondheim, Norway, 16 May 2012.

Kostic, M. and  Walleck, C., Design of a Steady-State, Parallel-Plate Thermal Conductivity Apparatus for Nanofluids And Comparative Measurements With Transient HWTC Apparatus, Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE2010-38187 (12 pp), November 12-18, 2010, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, ASME, New York, 2010.
Kostic, M., M. Golubovic, J.R. Hull and S.U.S. Choi, ONE-STEP METHOD FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NANOFLUIDS, ANL invention S-105,821. US Patent Number: US 7,718,033 B1, (PDF), Publication Date 18 May 2010.
Kostic, M., M. Golubovic, J.R. Hull and S.U.S. Choi, One-Step Method for the Production of Nanofluids, ANL invention S-122,261, U.S. Patent-Divisional Application No.12/729,494 filed by U.S. Department of Energy (Brian John Lally/Katherine Baldwin, Patent Attorney) on 23 March 2010. Additional Claims to the above.
Kostic, M and Simham, K.C., Computerized, Transient Hot-Wire Thermal Conductivity Apparatus for Nanofluids-Best HMT09 Conference Paper, Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on HEAT and MASS TRANSFER (HMT'09), Ningbo, China, January 10-12, 2009. In RECENT ADVANCES in HEAT and MASS TRANSFER (Editor: Lifeng Xi), ISBN: 978-960-474-039-0; ISSN: 1790-5095, p. 71-78, WSEAS Press. 2009. (Also, Plenary Lecture: Heat Transfer, Thermal Energy and Entropy - Demystified )

A new and  improved HWTC apparatus for thermal conductivity measurements of (nano)fluids has been recently developed. It employs innovative solutions for easy calibration of uniform Platinum wire tension and thus minimizing the strain influence on temperature measurement (i.e., minimizing the well-known and unwanted “strain-gage effect” on Pt-wire electrical resistivity); measurement of Pt-wire voltage drop independently from power wiring (four wires); and an effective off-centered mechanical design to minimize the fluid sample size (about 30 mL), but at the same time providing additional space for wiring (including three inside thermocouples for fluid temperature uniformity verification). Data acquisition hardware and software are optimized to minimize signal noise and enhance gethering and processing of useful data.
Prof. Kostic has been awarded a NSF research grant (CBET-0741078 Thermal Transport & Thermal Processing) for "Exploring New Hybrid Polymer-Nanofluids with Enhanced Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics," in 2007/2008.
Kostic, M., Effective Thermal Conductivity Errors by Assuming Unidirectional Temperature and Heat Flux Distribution Within Heterogeneous Mixtures (Nanofluids), (*) HMT'08-The5th WSEAS International Conference on HEAT and MASS TRANSFER, ID: 573-354, Acapulco, Mexico, January 25-27, 2008. Abstract: It is common practice to approximate temperature distribution and heat flux as unidirectional for heterogeneous mixtures if exposed to “over-all unidirectional” boundary conditions. This approach has been used to model and to arrive at the effective (or over-all average) thermal conductivity of heterogeneous mixtures (nanofluids). It is shown here, however, that due to the heterogeneity of system structure and properties the temperature distribution and heat flow will not be unidirectional (one-dimensional) and the errors due to such unrealistic (physically impossible) approximation may be much higher than anticipated.
Kostic, M., “Critical Issues and Application Potentials in Nanofluids Research,ASME-MN2006 Multifunctional Nanocomposites 2006 International Conference, September 20-22, 2006, Honolulu, Hawaii, ASME Proceedings, New York, 2006. (PPT & Photos or Seminar)
Nanofluid Flow-and-Heat-Transfer Apparatus * NIU-MK Nanofluids Activities and Future Plans

A collaborative research with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and NIU’s Institute for NanoScience, Engineering & Technology (InSET) to create and investigate new advanced Drag-Reduction-nanofluids (dubbed DRnanofluids) with an objective to enhance heat-transfer properties and reduce flow friction, have been proposed by Professor Kostic. Considering unique properties of Drag-Reduction fluids (Kostic’s prior research), very promising results with nanofluids obtained in ANL (Dr. Choi’s team), and InSET research resources, new potentials and possibly new discoveries are anticipated. In addition to thoughtful engineering research with systematic parametric investigation to develop and optimize production of nanofluids with enhanced flow and heat transfer properties, supporting research in characterizing physical structure and motion/interactions, including development of advanced photon source techniques in coherent x-ray scattering to characterize static and dynamic structural properties/interactions of nano-materials (Dr. Lurio), and synthesizing and investigating chemical structure/composition and electro-chemical interactions (C.T. Lin *) will be very useful to understand underlying phenomena and optimize development/design/production of nanofluids with desired, enhanced thermo-physical properties.

Furthermore, developing nanofluids with polymer additives (dubbed POLYnanofluids) may have many application possibilities, not only flow-friction reduction, since long-chain polymer molecules may provide an enhanced web-like structure for nanoparticles in base fluids. Thus, DRnanofluids will be a special sub-class of POLYnanofluids.

Nature is full of nanofluids, like blood, a complex biological nanofluid where different micro- and nano-particles (at molecular level) accomplish different functions. By studying (and understanding) nanofluids in the lab and nature, using new and available experimental techniques, and by developing computer based models of these fluids and related phenomena, new methods and tools for custom-design of nanofluids with enhanced properties and functions may be developed. Possible applications include more efficient cooling and heating in new and critical applications, like electronics, nuclear and biomedical instrumentation and equipments, transportation and industrial cooling, and heat management in various critical applications, as well as environmental control and cleanup, bio-medical applications, and directed self-assembly of nanostructures, which usually starts from a suspension of nanoparticles in fluid.

Nanofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles, nanofibers, or nanocomposites in common, base fluids, such as water, oil, ethylene-glycol mixtures (antifreeze), polymer solutions, etc.
Nanoparticles are very small, nanometer-sized particles with dimensions usually arround 10 nanometers (roughly corresponds to the transition from molecule to particle) but less than 100 nanometers (one nanometer is one billionth of a meter or one thousandth of a micrometer, 1 µm = 1000 nm). For comparison, less than10 lined atoms (usually 5) will span one nanometer length, a human hair is about 50,000 nm in diameter, while a smoke particle is about 1,000 nm in diameter. For example the carbon nanotubes, discovered in 1990s, are extremely thin (only several nanometer diameter), hollow cylinders made of thin-layer or even single-atom-layer carbon atoms. The smallest nanoparticles, only a few nanometers in diameter, contain only a few thousand atoms. These nanoparticles, can possess properties that are substantially different from their parent materials. Similarly, nanofluids may have properties that are substantially different from their base fluids, like much higher thermal conductivity, etc.

Industrial and Biomedical Applications: Development of new nanofluids, with enhanced or entirely different properties from their base fluids, is a new challenge and opportunity. Possible applications include more efficient cooling and heating in new and critical applications, environmental control and cleanup, bio-medical applications, and directed self-assembly of nanostructures. Important application may be as functional-nanoparticles, i.e. nano-carriers for extraction of useful components (like oil from sand and rocks) or nano-carriers for removal of harmful components (in environmental clean-up). In medicine nanoparticles in body fluids may be used for drug delivery and other functions. By directing and remotely controlling such nanoparticles (to function as nano-probes and nano-devices), for example, by driving magnetic nanoparticles to localized body tissue and then making them either to release the drug load or just heating them in order to destroy the surrounding tumor tissue. The trend in further development of nanomaterials is to make them multifunctional and controllable by external means or by local environment thus essentially turning them into useful nano-devices.
    Note: The physical (mechanical and optical) behaviors of micro- and nano-particles are significantly affected by their size. For example, the air molecules are order of 1 nm (say 0.5 nm) and mean free path for air is about 70 nm = 0.07 µm, while visible light has a wavelength band of 0.4 – 0.7 µm (400-700 nm). The living organisms are built of cells that are typically 10 μm (micrometer) across. However, the cell parts are much smaller and are of sub-micron size. Even smaller are the proteins with a typical size of just 5 nm, which is comparable with the dimensions of the smallest manmade nanoparticles.

► G. Ali Mansoori, Nanotechnology and Nanobiotechnology: A Global Science, Engineering and Business Perspectives; Seminar Lecture at Northern Illinois University, 12 February 2010,
S.U.S. Choi, Nanofluids: New Frontiers in Nanoscale Thermophysics, ME Graduate Colloquium, October 6, 2006 at 3:30 PM in EB 101, Northern Illinois University.
NIU 01/15/04 Seminar/Presentation by Dr. Steven Choi of Argonne National Lab: "Nanofluids for Ultra-High Performance Cooling" (Go to: Presentation Abstract and Dr. Choi's Bio/CV * *).
World's smallest motor
When Micro Meets Nano Are Nanobots Fiction or Reality? nano-Lubrication and nano-Tribology
Selected Nanofluids Links PSIgate-Sci Ref DataElectrons and Atoms Solutions General Chemistry (Water density)